Communist Revolution During Brazil’s Military Dictatorship

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Contents

Introduction

1 Military Takeover
1.1 The Fall of João Goulart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Coup D’état . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Military Dictatorship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 Agents
2.1 Agent Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Pro-Dictatorship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Anti-Dictatorship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 Birth of a Momement
3.1 Communist Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Revolutionary Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Funding the Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 Interaction
4.1 Kidnapping of Ambassadors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Bargaining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Asylum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5 Revolution
5.1 Rise of Communist Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 Turmoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 The Fall of the Military Dictatorship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 

1 Military Takeover

1.1 The Fall of João Goulart

João (Jango) Belchior Marques Goulart was installed as head of the Labor Party in Brazil in 1952. He was a fellow gaúcho and close friend to the former labor movement’s leader Getúlio Dornelles Vargas. [1] The Labor Party, or PTB, as it was known, was loyal to Vargas’ Estado Novo, “socialist democracy” state. [1] The initial goal in the group’s formation was to organize a group loyal to Vargas’ era. [2]

The Labor Party was formed in 1945 and is an institutional organization made up of individuals that have a common goal and interests. The Labor Party was a working class movement such that the individuals share the common interest of worker’s rights and benefits. [2]. The Labor Party mobilized workers, distributed patronage, acted in opposition to its enemies, and rewarded loyalists by creating jobs. [1] Many of the PTB were known as trabalhistas or Communist union leaders. [2] The PTB organized strike movements and work stoppages. [2]

Bibliography

[1]    Levine, Robert M. (1998) Father of The Poor. Cambridge University Press.

[2]    Fausto, Boris. (1999) A Concise History of Brazil. Cambridge University Press.

 

Brazilian Labour Party (historical)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Not to be confused with its successor, the current Brazilian Labour Party, or with the unrelated Labour Party of Brazil or the Workers’ Party.
Brazilian Labour Party
Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro
Leader Getúlio Vargas
Founded 1945
Dissolved 1965
Ideology Social democracy
Populism
Political position Centre-left
Colours Black, White, & Red

The Brazilian Labour Party (Portuguese: Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro, PTB) was a center-leftpopulistpolitical party in Brazil founded in 1945 by supporters of PresidentGetúlio Vargas. It was dismantled by the military after 1964 coup d’état.

History

The party was founded by followers of President Getúlio Vargas on May 15, 1945, during the final days of his Estado Novo dictatorship. It grew rapidly in the shadow of Vargas, the most important Brazilian politician of the early to mid-20th century. Its main goal was to prevent a growth of Communist Party membership among urban workers.[1]

PTB’s support came from the trade unions controlled by the Ministry of Labour, and its trump card was the prestige of Getúlio Vargas, its honorary chairman, which introduced social and labor legislation in the country.[1] From 1945 to 1962, PTB was the third force in Brazilian politics, after the Social Democratic Party (PSD) and the National Democratic Union (UDN), but it became more popular than the UDN in the 1962 Congressional elections. In 1950, Vargas was elected to a second term through PTB. Vargas committed suicide in 1954, and his heir João Goulart became the central figure in the party along with the populistLeonel Brizola.

Since the party was a close ally of PSD, also founded by supporters of the late Vargas, it remained in power when Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira was elected President in 1955. Goulart was elected Vice President in 1955 and 1960, becoming President in 1961 with the resignation of Jânio Quadros. PTB was in power again, but Goulart was overthrown by a military-led coup d’état in 1964. Various PTB figures were removed from the National Congress, and all political parties, including PTB, were dissolved on October 27, 1965.[1] Nearly all of the party merged with the bulk of the PSD to form the Brazilian Democratic Movement, the only opposition party permitted for the first decade of the military dictatorship.

A new PTB, this time a center-right party, was established by Ivete Vargas, Getúlio’s niece, in 1980, with the end of the artificial two-party system imposed by the military regime.[1] Brizola led the majority of the PTB’s former followers into the Democratic Labour Party.[2]

 

 

 

 

João (Jango) Belchior Marques Goulart was installed as head of the Labor Party in Brazil in 1952. He was a fellow gaúcho and close friend to the former labor movement’s leader Getúlio Dornelles Vargas. \cite{Levine1} The Labor Party, Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro, or PTB, as it was known, was loyal to Vargas’ Estado Novo, “socialist democracy” state. \cite{Levine1} The initial goal in the group’s formation was to organize a group of working class citizens who would be loyal to Vargas’ regime. \cite{Fausto1} The group was not a Communist group was created to avoid a Communist takeover of the state.

The PTB was formed in 1945 and is an institutional organization made up of individuals that have a common goal and interests. The goals of the PTB was social democracy under the theory of capitalism. The PTB was a working class movement such that the individuals share the common interest of worker’s rights and benefits under the exploitative conditions of capitalism. \cite{Fausto1}. Worker’s parties bargained for higher wages and less hours.

The Labor Party was a decision-making organization that participated in the policy process. Labor Party mobilized workers, distributed patronage, acted in opposition to its enemies, and rewarded loyalists by creating jobs. \cite{Levine1} Many of the PTB were known as textit{trabalhistas} or Communist union leaders. \cite{Fausto1} Unions were very powerful during this period. The PTB organized strike movements and work stoppages. \cite{Fausto1} Strikes and worker stoppages are forms of bargaining with elites and authority. The strikes and stoppages were often successful. In 1958 there was a recorded 31 strikes. \cite{Fausto1}

Goulart later became president of Brazil in 1961 after Vargas’ term despite opposition from the Brazilian military. \cite{Brit1} Goulart installed new reforms in purpose to curb the social pressure of workers and groups such as agrarian reform and urban reform. Agrarian reform was enacted in purpose to settle disputes over land while urban reform allowed tenants to remain in their homes. \cite{Fausto1} Additionally, the Goulart Administration focused on more nationalistic framework such that government would take a stronger position in economic matters to curb the social problems caused from economic policies. \cite{Fausto1} These reforms were supported by the educated middle class of Brazil. \cite{Fausto1}

The Brazilian government was facing greater public crisis during this period. Economic conditions were driving individuals to unionize causing them to mobilize. Worker’s strikes continued up to 172 in 1963. \cite{Fausto1} Mobilizations occurred both from agrarian and urban groups. \cite{Fausto1} This pressured the government on the social front. With growing public and private sector mobilization, the government face continuing crisis. On the agrarian front, landowners were beginning to take up arms afraid of government seizures. \cite{Fausto1}

During this period, anti-Goulart sentiment was growing in the Brazilian military along with other supporters against Goulart’s measures. \cite{Fausto1} There was a revolt within the military in 1963 which was a crisis for Goulart’s regime. \cite{Fausto1} The military was growing in number against Goulart and his reforms. The military thought Goulart was Communistic in principle. The military overthrew Goulart in an act to “free the country from corruption and Communism and to restore democracy.” \cite{Fausto1}

\section{Military Dictatorship}

News of the military dictatorship hit the US. In an article in the New York Times tells, “the military regime has installed a censorship of the press, made thousands of arrests and dismissed many Deputies without trial…[Brazil] is committed to ‘a real revolution’ and may therefore have the wisdom to make the social and economic reforms…as a preliminary to the restoration of democracy.” \cite{NYT1} The article claimed the Goulart regime was dangerous and cited the government was “bolshevizing the nation.” \cite{NYT1} Proponents of Brazil’s military viewed the coup as saving the country from Communism.

The were several government raids on suspected Communist groups. One American news report told of the raids in the state of Guanabara were Communist propaganda was seized, more than 3,000 people were arrested, and there was over 900 raids. \cite{NYT2}. Another article told how the government would begin “decommunization” measures to oust any members of government or military who was a Communist sympathizer. \cite{NYT3} The articles were framed as supportive of the military coup.

The military broadened the powers of the president citing frames of national security and nationalism. Upon expanding the power of the president, the new military regime abolished all political parties including the PTB Labor Party. \cite{Fausto1} The new regime also censored the media such to anger the Brazilian intelligentsia but gained the media support of Globo Network. \cite{Ribke1}

Social mobilization was very strong at this point. In 1968 following a crisis of the death of a student at the hands of the military police, there were massive demonstrations in Brazil; the massive demonstrations were massive protests and the beginnings of contentious collective action against the new Brazilian government. \cite{Fausto1} There were violence and clashes with police as the mobilization against the government grew. \cite{Fausto1} Many students, representatives of churches, and middle class people took part in the demonstrations. \cite{Fausto1} There was an increase in the participation of doctors, lawyers, senior civil servants, merchants, and businessmen. \cite{Skidmore1}

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