Paper Update Draft 2: socialist-opposition-movement (37) (April 22, 2017)
Paper Rough Draft 1: socialist-revolution-brazils (74 (April 3, 2017)
J. Means, “Latin American Report: Political Kidnappings and Terrorism.” The North American Review, Vol.255, No. 4, pp. 16-19, 1970.
Guerrilla groups (Means, 1970)
- Small, independent groups
- Recruit from universities, religious groups, trade unions including the banned National Student’s Union (UNE), banned political parties, and even among professionals
- In Rio and Sao Paulo, guerrilla groups operated like an army, trained cadres (fighters) totaling 800 people
- organized strikes in factories or universities and passed out propaganda material depicting the assassination of police or military officials
T. Skidmore. Brazil: Five Centuries of Change. Oxford University Press, 1988.
- The guerilla movement was run by disaffected youth from the elite not workers
- Many came from leftist Catholic youth organizations and university political groups.
 Skidmore, 1988.
 Fausto, 1999.
- The Worker’s Party was founded by Lula (Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva) in 1979. In 1978, after Lula was a known leader of the labor movement, Lula decided the political activism was not enough and perhaps a working class party should be formed. 
- Lula had carried out successful strikes in Brazil, especially in the Sao Paulo area. 
- All but two parties were illegal in Brazil, the National Renewel Alliance, the party of the military, and the moderate party, the Democratic Socialist Movement. 
- The Worker’s Party was formed as an opposition party against the military regime campaigning on socialist political and economic principles.
- The Worker’s Party gained popularity and spread to urban areas such as Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Parana, and Rio Grande do Sul. 
- The Worker’s Party organized massive strikes in several regions in Brazil and planned to run in the 1982 parliamentary elections. 
M. E. Keck, The Worker’s Party and Democratization in Brazil. Yale University Press, 1992.
- Strikes in 1979 involved 3 million workers.